Treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by C.
pneumoniae, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, M.
catarrhalis, M. pneumoniae or S. pneumoniae; treatment of
acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by C.
pneumoniae, E. cloacae, H. influenzae, H.
parainfluenzae, K. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, S.
aureus or S. pneumoniae
Clinical effects on the fetus: Avoid use in pregnant women unless the benefit
justifies the potential risk to the fetus
Breast-feeding/lactation: Quinolones are known to distribute well into breast
milk; consequently use during lactation should be avoided if possible
Hypersensitivity to sparfloxacin, any component, or other quinolones; a
concurrent administration with drugs which increase the Q-T interval including:
amiodarone, bepridil, bretylium,cisapride, disopyramide, furosemide,
procainamide, quinidine, sotalol, albuterol, astemizole, chloroquine, cisapride,
halofantrine, phenothiazines, prednisone, terfenadine, and tricyclic
Not recommended in children <18 years of age, other quinolones have caused
transient arthropathy in children; CNS stimulation may occur (tremor,
restlessness, confusion, and very rarely hallucinations or seizures); use with
caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorder or renal dysfunction;
prolonged use may result in superinfection; if an allergic reaction (itching,
urticaria, dyspnea, pharyngeal or facial edema, loss of consciousness, tingling,
cardiovascular collapse) occurs, discontinue the drug immediately; use caution
to avoid possible photosensitivity reactions during and for several days
following fluoroquinolone therapy; pseudomembranous colitis may occur and should
be considered in patients who present with diarrhea
Central nervous system: Insomnia, agitation, sleep disorders, anxiety,
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting
Hematologic: Leukopenia, eosinophilia, anemia
Hepatic: Increased LFTs
<1%: Photosensitivity, rash, myalgia, arthralgia
Symptoms of overdose include acute renal failure, seizures
GI decontamination and supportive care; not removed by peritoneal or
Decreased effect: Decreased absorption with antacids containing aluminum,
magnesium, and/or calcium, sucralfate, didanosine and by products containing
zinc and iron salts when administered concurrently. Take > 4 hours after
sparfloxacin. Phenytoin serum levels may be reduced by quinolones;
antineoplastic agents may also decrease serum levels of fluoroquinolones
Increased toxicity/serum levels: Quinolones cause increased levels of
caffeine, warfarin, cyclosporine, and theophylline (although one study indicates
that sparfloxacin may not affect theophylline metabolism), cimetidine and
probenecid increase quinolone levels; an increased incidence of seizures may
occur with foscarnet. Avoid use with drugs which increase Q-T interval as
significant risk of cardiotoxicity may occur. Concurrent use with cisapride is
Inhibits DNA-gyrase in susceptible organisms; inhibits relaxation of
supercoiled DNA and promotes breakage of double-stranded
Absorption: Oral absorption is unaffected by food or milk but can be reduced
by approximately 50% by concurrent administration of aluminum- and
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the body
Metabolism: Sparfloxacin is metabolized in the liver, but does not utilize
the cytochrome P-450 system
Half-life: Mean terminal half-life: 20 hours (range: 16-30 hours)
Elimination: Equally excreted in both the urine and feces; ~10% of an oral
dose is excreted unchanged in the urine
Maintenance: 1 tablet (200 mg) daily for 10 days total therapy (total 11
Dosing adjustment in renal impairment: Clcr <50
mL/minute: Administer 400 mg on day 1, then 200 mg every 48 hours for a total of
9 days of therapy (total 6 tablets)
Evaluation of organ system functions (renal, hepatic, ophthalmologic, and
hematopoietic) is recommended periodically during therapy; the possibility of
crystalluria should be assessed; WBC and signs and symptoms of
|Mental Health: Effects
on Mental Status|
May cause agitation, anxiety, insomnia, or delirium; quinolones reported to
cause restlessness, hallucinations, euphoria, depression, panic, and
Effects on Psychiatric
May cause leukopenia; use caution with clozapine and carbamazepine;
contraindicated with TCAs and phenothiazines
|Dental Health: Local
No information available to require special precautions
Effects on Dental Treatment|
No effects or complications reported
Take per recommended schedule around-the-clock. Maintain adequate hydration
(2-3 L/day of fluids unless instructed to restrict fluid intake). Take complete
prescription and do not skip doses; if dose is missed take as soon as possible,
do not double doses. Do not take with antacids. You may experience dizziness,
lightheadedness, anxiety, insomnia, or confusion; use caution when driving or
engaging in tasks that require alertness until response to drug is known. Small
frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking lozenges, or chewing gum may reduce
nausea, vomiting, or taste disturbances. You may experience photosensitivity;
use sunscreen, wear protective clothing and eyewear, and avoid direct sunlight.
Report palpitations or chest pain; persistent diarrhea or GI disturbances or
abdominal pain; muscle tremor or pain; pain, inflammation, or rupture of tendon;
yellowing of eyes or skin, easy bruising or bleeding; unusual fatigue; fever,
chills, signs of infection; or worsening of condition.
Pregnancy/breast-feeding precautions: Inform prescriber if pregnant. Do not
Tablet: 200 mg
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"Sparfloxacin vs Ofloxacin in the Treatment of Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: A Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Comparative Study. Sparfloxacin Multicenter ABECB Study Group,"
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Goa KL, Bryson HM, and Markham A,
"Sparfloxacin. A Review of Its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetic Properties, Clinical Efficacy, and Tolerability in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections,"
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Henry D, Ellison W, Sullivan J, et al,
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Martin SJ, Meyer JM, Chuck SK, et al,
"Levofloxacin and Sparfloxacin: New Quinolone Antibiotics," Ann
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Pfaller MA and Jones RN,
"Comparative Antistreptococcal Activity of Two Newer Fluoroquinolones, Levofloxacin and Sparfloxacin,"
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"Sparfloxacin and Levofloxacin," Med Lett Drugs Ther, 1997,
Stein GE and Havlichek DH,
"Sparfloxacin: Potential Clinical and Economic Impact in the Treatment of Respiratory Infections,"
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Trautman M, Ruhnke M, Borner K, et al,
"Pharmacokinetics of Sparfloxacin and Serum Bactericidal Activity Against Pneumococci,"
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Zix JA, Geerdes-Fenge HF, Rau M, et al,
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