1. Benzyl alcohol is classified as:
a. Emulsifying agent
d. Suspending agent
2. Cold cream is an example of: a. Suspension
b. O/W emulsion
c. W/O emulsion
d. O/W/O emulsion
3. Which of the following is an example of an oligosaccharide?
4. Which pyrimidine base is found only in RNA?
5. The deviation of data from its mean is generally described by:
a. The average
b. The standard deviation
c. The precision
d. The accuracy
6. The reproducibility of results of a number of experiments is generally known as:
7. Which of the following drugs is an angiotensin receptor antagonist ?
8. The rate of sedimentation is independent of :
a. The viscosity of dispersion medium.
b. The diameter of suspended particles.
c. The difference in densities between dispersed medium and dispersed phase.
d. The lipophilic nature of particles.
9. A patient with acute hypercapnia should be treated with which of the following ?
10. Which of the following is NOT an example of a live attenuated vaccine ?
11. Corlopam (Feoldopam) is indicated for short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension. It is classified a(n)
a Alpha-1 receptors agonist.
b Beta-2 receptor agonist
c Dopamine-D1 receptor agonist
d Histamine-H1 receptor agonist
12. Which of the following ratios is the best indicator of a pharmacy’s profitability ?
a. Net profit to net sales
b. Net profit to net worth
c. Net profit to total asset
d. Net profit to inventory
13. Which of the following ratios generally indicates the efficiency of a pharmacy ?
a. Net profit to total assets.
b. Inventory turnover rate
c. Capitalization of net profit
d. Net profit to net sales
14. The molecular geometry of a CH4 (methane) molecule is:
d. Trigonal bipyramidal
15. The transfer of molecules from a solid phase directly to a vapor phase is known as:
16. As with most menopause symptoms, hot flashes are due to
a. Estrogen deficiency
b. Estrogen excess
c. Progesterone deficiency
d. Progesterone excess
17. The symptoms of BPH are caused by
a. pressure exerted by the prostate gland on urethra
b. relaxation of bladder muscles
c. shrinkage of the prostate gland
d. relaxation of the prostate gland muscles
18. Which of the following TCA is used in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis?
(b) Benzyl alcohol is classified as a preservative. Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms and prevent deterioration of pharmaceutical dosage forms. The ideal preservative must have the following characteristics:
It must be effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms. It must be stable for the lifetime of the product. It must be nontoxic, soluble, palatable in test and odor and compatible with other ingredients in the formulation.
Commonly used preservatives:
* phenol * benzoic acid
* benzyl alcohol * chlorobutanol
* thiomersal * benzalkonium
* cresol * cetylpyridinium
(c) Cold cream is an example of W/O emulsion. It is a biphasic liquid dosage form, in which disperse phase and the dispersion medium are liquids. Emulsion is classified by five different categories:
Water in Oil (W/O) : Oil is continuous phase and water is a disperse phase, i.e. lotions and liniments.
Oil in water (O/W) : Water is continuous phase and oil is a dispersed phase i.e. most of the oral emulsions to unmask the oil taste of a medication.
Microemulsion : Unlike emulsions, microemulsion is a transparent with a small particle size. It is believed to be thermodynamically stable. The particle size of microemulsion lies between 10 to 200 nm. It is generally used for the solubilization of the drug in pharmaceutical dosage form.
Nanoparticles : As the name suggests, the particle size of this kind of emulsion is limited to nanograms. They are useful for the preparation of globulins and toxoids. Tetanus toxoid and human immunoglobulin G are examples of nanoparticles emulsion.
Multiple emulsions : Water in Oil in ware (W/O/W), Oil in water in Oil (O/W/O). The w/o/w emulsions are generally more preferable for preparation of various pharmaceutical dosage forms. They are used to prolong the duration of action of various drugs, to localize drug in the body and to prepare cosmetics.
(b) Sucrose is an example of Oligosaccharide. It consists of a short chain of monosaccharide. It consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose.Carbohydrates can be divided into three categories : Monosaccharide, Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide.
Monosaccharides : They are simple sugar such as glucose and fructose.
Oligosaccharides : Consists of a small chain of monosaccharides. i.e. sucrose, maltose and lactose. They have to degraded into simple sugar in order to be absorb from the intestine. Degradation of sucrose gives one molecule of glucose and fructose, degradation of maltose gives two molecules of glucose, and degradation of lactose gives each molecule of galactose and glucose.
Polysaccharides : They consist of long chains of monosaccharides i.e. starch and glycogen
(c) Uracil. It is a pyrimidine base that only found on RNA.
Nucleotides are the building blocks of the nucleic acid. Purines and pyrimidines bases bind to ribose to form nucleoside, which when binded to phosphoric acid forms the nucleotides.
(b) The deviation of data from its mean or average is defined as standard deviation. The reproducibility of the series of measurements is known as precision. Accuracy is defined as closeness of measurements to the true value.
(d) The relation of the rate of sedimentation with various parameters can be expressed by Stoke’s law.
V = 2r2 (P1 - P2) g/9n
V = velocity of sedimentation in cm/sec
r = radius of the particles in cm
P1 = density of disperse phase in
P2 = density of dispersion medium in g/cm3
n = viscosity of dispersion medium
g = gravity acceleration 980.7 cm/sec2
The rate of sedimentation is independent of the lipophilic nature of particles.
(a) Doxapram is indicated as the respiratory stimulant agent in postanesthesia and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with acute hypercapnia. The respiratory stimulant to effect of this agent is attributed to its ability to stimulate the respiratory center in the medulla via carotid chemoreceptors.
Ipecac is widely used as an emetic in accidental poisoning. It is also used as an expectorant.
Dopamine is formed by the decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). It is a precursor to noradrenalin and is also itself a neurotransmitter in CNS. It is indicated for treatment of cardiac shock. The vasodilation offered by dopamine is very important in drawing the blood in the kidney and small bowel during an ischemic attack. The diuretic property of dopamine helps to preserve the renal tubules. The cardiac stimulation improves the deteriorated cardiac function. Hypotension is a principal adverse effect of the drug.
Disopyramide is classified as a class IA antiarrhythmic agent. It has profound anticholinergic side effects with severe A.V. node suppression properties. It should be carefully used in patients with congestive heart failure with glaucoma and urinary hesistancy. The major adverse effects reported are dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention and blurred vision.
(b) Diptheria is an example of a killed inactivated vaccine. Measles, Mumps and Rubella are examples of live attenuated (live organism with reduced disease producing capacity) vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines should never be administered to an AIDS patient.
(c) Corlopam (Feoldopam) is indicated for short-term (up to 48 hours) management of severe hypertension when rapid but quickly reversible, emergency reduction of blood pressure is clinically required. It is an agonist for Dopamine-D1 receptors.
(b) Net profit to net worth ratio is the best indicator of a pharmacy’s profitability, because it compares the net profit to net investment in the pharmacy
(b) Inventory turnover rate generally describes the efficiency of a pharmacy. It is generally calculated by dividing the cost of the goods sold by the average of beginning and ending inventory.
(c) The molecular geometry of the Methane is tetrahedral. Below are examples of molecules with their possible geometry.
BF3 Trigonal planar
NH3 Trigonal Pyramidal
PCl543 5 Trigonal
(a) Estrogen deficiency is the major cause for hot flashes.
(a) The prostate gland is located below the bladder in men. It surrounds the urethra, which is a tube that drains urine from the bladder. Due to enlargement and tightening of muscles of the prostate gland, pressure is exerted on the urethra. The squeezing of the urethra results in slow flow of the urine from the bladder; which apparently causes the symptoms of BPH.
Symptoms of BPH:
* a weak or interrupted stream when urinating
* a feeling that you cannot empty your bladder completely
* a feeling of delay when you start to urinate
* a need to urinate often, especially at night
* a feeling that you must urinate right away
(b) Imipramine is TCA mainly indicated for the treatment of nocturial enuresis. The M/A of TCA in the treatment of nocturial enuresis has been questioned. Desmopressin (Vasopressin) is a synthetic analog of endogenous human antidiuretic hormone also indicated for the treatment of nocturial enuresis.
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