Textbook : perioperative fluid therapy
Intravenous fluid therapy is an essential component of perioperative management. Virtually all surgical patients, ranging from those having brief, minimally invasive outpatient procedures to those having major intracavitary surgery, receive at least preoperative and intraoperative fluids; the majority of surgical inpatients receive postoperative fluids for varying intervals. Perioperative fluid management has historically generated controversy, with little compelling data to address the conflict between the extreme approaches of ‘‘keep them dry’’ and ‘‘aggressively hydrate them.’’ The limited data until now have driven a gradual change toward more liberal fluid administration in recent decades, but, in general, clinicians have used coarse, empirical approaches based on weakly supported rules of thumb. Many clinicians have no doubt concluded that their version of current practice is entirely satisfactory and perhaps have devoted little attention to recent clinical and technological advances in perioperative fluid management.
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